Electric bicycle, refers to the battery as a supplementary energy on the basis of ordinary bicycles, the installation of the motor, controller, battery, handlebar and other control components and display instrumentation system of mechanical and Electric Bike electrical integration of personal transport; 2013 "China Electric bicycle industry innovation peak forum "data show that China's electric bicycles cut through the 2013 volume of 200 million, and has been in dispute in the electric bike" new national standard "will also be introduced. The new national standard is expected to set off a big change in the electric bicycle industry.
The history of the development of electric bicycles, the industry generally recognized as the three stages of development: the initial stage of electric bicycles, the initial production scale stage, speeding stage of development.
The initial stage of electric bicycles is also known as the early stage of experimental production of electric bicycles, from time to time, that is, from 1995 to 1999. This stage is mainly on the four major electric bike, motor, battery, charger and controller of the key technology to explore the study. In the R & D production is mainly to produce spontaneous collection of information, tracking technology, organization of market observation, small batch of market trial put on, but also makes Electric Bike electric bicycles began to enter the consumer's vision, and they gradually recognized to accept. From the technical level, the early electric bike, the new battery charge can only travel about 30 km, battery life is short, climbing ability is poor, easy to wear, and the motor is also brushless toothless motor. But the accumulation of this period, only for the current scale of the industrialization of talent, technology and product development and other aspects of the foundation.
The second stage is called the initial production scale of the stage, is due to this period of time there will be a few electric bikes to promote the opportunity, making the early stages of struggling electric bike suddenly ushered in the spring, more The development of the industry has entered a scale.
This time period is generally recognized as a period from 2000 to 2004, during which time, as the key technical breakthroughs and the performance of electric bicycles continue to improve, so that electric bicycles become motorcycles and bicycles Alternative products, and its fast, environmentally friendly, convenient and cheap, but also to stimulate the market for the Electric Bike requirements of electric bicycles. In the growing market demand, the previous R & D and production enterprises quickly rise, some new enterprises have begun to enter, their electric bicycle investment is also increasing, making the rapid expansion of production capacity (see details of Table 1.1). Moreover, this time quickly jump up the business is generous operation, has been the older generation of R & D and production enterprises behind. However, some well-known brands as the representative of the scale of enterprises has been formed, and in accordance with the North-South differences, but also formed the industry's Jiangsu Wuxi, Zhejiang, Tianjin, represented by the three major industrial agglomeration.
The third stage is from 2005 to the present, this stage is China's electric bicycle speeding stage, the industry dubbed the "well logging stage." In this period of time, with the fierce competition between enterprises greatly stimulated the progress of technology and new technology diffusion, the technical level of the industry greatly improved battery life and capacity increased by 35%, the motor from a single brush has Tooth motor developed into a brushless high efficiency motor for the mainstream, life increased by 5 times, efficiency increased by nearly 30%, climbing and load capacity increased by about 3.5 times. In the performance improvement at the same time, manufacturing costs have dropped significantly, the price power Electric Bike dropped to the original 21%; in the controller system and charging system, the technical level has increased significantly. Especially in the battery technology and motor technology have made great progress, electric vehicles for lead-acid batteries in the technical breakthrough has been leading the international, and the formation of the days of energy, ultra-Wei as the leading Zhejiang Changxing plate, Kang Lien, Double board as the representative of the Jiangsu plate and to Ruida as the representative of the Guangdong plate. The battery also has a single lead-acid battery evolved out of many types of high-performance batteries, and the emergence of lithium batteries, more driving the electric bike, especially the development of simple models. In the motor, the invention of permanent magnet brushless motor, so that the pace of development of the industry significantly accelerated. The key to the performance of the motor is the performance of the ferromagnetic material. In all kinds of permanent magnetic materials, the performance of the rare earth permanent magnet material is the most superior. China is the world's recognized rare earth resources and rare earth products manufacturing power. As the rare earth strong magnetic material performance, low prices, manufacturing capacity, making the international market price is expensive BLDC (brushless DC permanent magnet motor) system in China enterprises are widely used, electric bicycle industry thus gained a unique advantage. From the industry's total production and sales point of view, in 2005, hundreds of enterprises in various light electric vehicles (including electric bicycles) is expected to total output of more than 9 million, exports about 200 to 3 million, the industrial output value of 200 Billion, profits and taxes of about 6 billion yuan, the relevant production and service areas of employment nearly 100 million people. China's light electric vehicle production and sales have accounted for more than 90% of the world, China has become the world's largest light electric vehicle producer, consumer and exporting countries.
In China from the 80s of last century, it was developed a electric bike, and constantly improve its structure. Until the beginning of this century, electric bicycles was able to a large number of promotion, into numerous families.